Lighting is responsible for one-fourth of all electricity consumption worldwide,and case studies have shown that several forms of over-illumination constitute energy wastage, including non-beneficial upward direction of night-time lighting. In 2007, Terna, the company responsible for managing electricity flow in Italy, reported a saving of 645.2 million kWh in electricity consumption during the daylight saving period from April to October. It attributes this saving to the delayed need for artificial lighting during the evenings. where to buy cheap LED Strip? Lightereryday is a good choice.
public lighting is the single largest source of local government's greenhouse gas emissions, typically accounting for 30 to 50% of their emissions. There are 1.94 million public lights — one for every 10 Australians — that annually cost A$210 million, use 1,035 GWh of electricity and are responsible for 1.15 million tonnes of CO2 emissions.
Current public lighting in Australia, particularly for minor roads and streets, uses large amounts of energy and financial resources, while often failing to provide high quality lighting. There are many ways to improve lighting quality while reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions as well as lowering costs.
Effects on animal and human health and psychology
Medical research on the effects of excessive light on the human body suggests that a variety of adverse health effects may be caused by light pollution or excessive light exposure, and some lighting design textbooksuse human health as an explicit criterion for proper interior lighting. Health effects of over-illumination or improper spectral composition of light may include: increased headache incidence, worker fatigue, medically defined stress, decrease in sexual function and increase in anxiety.
Likewise, animal models have been studied demonstrating unavoidable light to produce adverse effect on mood and anxiety.For those who need to be awake at night, light at night also has an acute effect on alertness and mood.
Common levels of fluorescent lighting in offices are sufficient to elevate blood pressure by about eight points. Specifically within the USA, there is evidence that levels of light in most office environments lead to increased stress as well as increased worker errors. recommend directory: 3528 SMD Flexible Strip with waterproof 5 Meter 150 LEDS.
Several published studies also suggest a link between exposure to light at night and risk of breast cancer, due to suppression of the normal nocturnal production of melatonin.In 1978 Cohen et al. proposed that reduced production of the hormone melatonin might increase the risk of breast cancer and citing "environmental lighting" as a possible causal factor.Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have also concluded a study that suggests that artificial light during the night can be a factor for breast cancer.
In 2007, "shift work that involves circadian disruption" was listed as a probable carcinogen by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. (IARC Press release No. 180).Multiple studies have documented a correlation between night shift work and the increased incidence of breast cancer.
A good review of current knowledge of the health consequences of exposure to artificial light at night and an explanation of the causal mechanisms has been published in the Journal of Pineal Research in 2007.
A more recent discussion (2009), written by Professor Steven Lockley, Harvard Medical School, can be found in the CfDS handbook "Blinded by the Light?".Chapter 4, "Human health implications of light pollution" states that "... light intrusion, even if dim, is likely to have measurable effects on sleep disruption and melatonin suppression. Even if these effects are relatively small from night to night, continuous chronic circadian, sleep and hormonal disruption may have longer-term health risks". The New York Academy of Sciences hosted a meeting in 2009 on Circadian Disruption and Cancer.Forty Danish female shift workers in 2009 were awarded compensation for breast cancer "caused" by shift work made possible by light at night - the most common cause of light pollution.
In June 2009, the American Medical Association developed a policy in support of control of light pollution. News about the decision emphasized glare as a public health hazard leading to unsafe driving conditions. Especially in the elderly, glare produces loss of contrast, obscuring night vision. recommend directory: 3528 SMD Flexible Strip with Non-waterproof 5 Meter 300 LEDS.